Sunday, September 12, 2010

Pet Scan Results

A PET, which stands for positron-emissions tomography, scan is used to detect cancer in patients. A PET scan can locate cancer, give information on the stage of the cancer and monitor how well treatments are working for current cancer patients. PET scans can even diagnosis benign or cancerous tumors. When a doctor finds a lump in a lung, a PET scan may be able to tell whether surgery and treatment is necessary without having to do a traditional biopsy. PET scans work  by using a small amount of a radioactive tracer attached to glucose. The scanner finds areas in the body that are using more glucose and signifies that as a sign of cancer.
  1. Attend a PET/CT Image Interpretation training (see Additional Resources). PET scans should be read by professionals who have been trained (either through regular coursework or through specialized courses) to avoid unclear results or panic in the person who had the PET scan. Doctors should not hand over results without letting the patient know how to read the scan and what it means.

  2. Search the PET scan for hot spots if you are trained in reading PET scans. Hot spots will occur where the body is using more glucose.

  3. Use the Standardized Uptake Values (SUVs) scale to measure the brightness of a hot spot on a PET scan. The scale range is zero to 15. Zero indicates no uptake, and 15 is maximal uptake. Most cancers are above 2 or 3 on this scale.

  4. Decide if the SUVs are in the 2 to 3 SUVs range. If they are, discern whether the patient may have cancer or the hotspots may be a sign of highly metabolic normal tissues. Highly metabolic normal tissues can register in the 2 to 3 SUVs range also, but it would abnormal for this tissue to be closer to 15.

  5. Discuss the patient's options if any cancerous tumors are found in the body during the PET scan. PET scans can show that the tumor is benign or cancerous, and so a biopsy may or may not need to be scheduled for the patient.

CT Scan Radiation

Radiation from computerized tomography scans may cause cancer decades later, according to a study that estimated about 29,000 future malignancies would occur in the U.S. because of CT scans done in 2007.

Most of the cancers are predicted to strike women, who receive more CT scans than men, and about one-third of the projected malignancies may occur from scans performed in people ages 35 to 54, said research published today in the Archives of Internal Medicine. The cancer forecast was based on an estimate that about 72 million CT scans were done in 2007.

The number of CT tests in the U.S. has risen three-fold since 1993, according to the study. More research is required to determine the lowest dose of radiation needed for clear pictures from CT scans to help reduce radiation exposure, said lead study author Amy Berrington de Gonzalez.

“We know that there are great medical benefits to CT scans, but they also involve small risks of cancer because of radiation exposure,” said Berrington de Gonzalez, a researcher at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, in a Dec. 11 telephone interview. “For an individual, the risks are small. So if the scan is clinically justified, then the benefits should outweigh the risks.”

CT scans produce detailed images of the body that provide more details than a traditional X-ray. CT scanners are made by Fairfield, Connecticut-based General Electric Co., Toshiba Corp. based in Tokyo, Munich-based Siemens AG and Royal Philips Electronics NV based in Amsterdam.

Medicare Data

Researchers in the study looked at data from Medicare, the U.S. government health program for those older than 65 or disabled, plus a survey and an insurance database with information on the types of CT scans and the age and gender of patients taking the tests.

Berrington de Gonzalez said the overall risk for any individual is small and depends on the type of scan given and a person’s age. A 70-year-old who has a CT scan of the head would have a 1 in 10,000 chance of developing cancer from the test, while a baby who had a chest CT scan would have a 1 in 200 chance, she said.

The researchers found that about 30 percent of scans in the study were performed in adults ages 35 to 54, 13 percent in those 18 to 34 and 7 percent in children younger than 18.

Lung Cancer

The authors predicted that lung cancer will be the most common radiation-related cancer followed by colon cancer and leukemia. Of the 29,000 people who may get cancer from CT scans done in 2007, about 50 percent will die, the researchers estimated. If CT scan use remains at its current level or higher, eventually 29,000 cancers every year could be related to past CT scan use. That number is equal to about 2 percent of the 1.4 million cancers diagnosed each year in the U.S., they said.

A second study in the journal found that radiation doses from CT scans vary greatly and are higher than previously thought. The researchers reviewed CT procedures performed on 1,119 patients in the San Francisco Bay area over five months.

They found a 13-fold variation between the highest and lowest radiation dose for each type of CT procedure. Patients’ exposure to radiation needs to be reduced by standardizing and limiting the radiation associated with each scan, they said. The number of CT scans should be reduced, they said, citing previous reports that 30 percent or more may be unnecessary.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued interim regulations Dec. 7 requiring closer monitoring of CT scans after more than 250 cases of exposure to excess radiation were reported since October.

CT Heart Scans

The researchers, led by Rebecca Smith-Bindman at the University of California, San Francisco, also estimated cancer risk. They project that 1 in 270 women who undergo a CT scan of the heart’s blood vessels at age 40 will develop cancer from the procedure compared with 1 in 600 men.

In certain groups of patients for certain kinds of scans, the risk is as high as 1 in 80, said Smith-Bindman, a professor of radiology at UC San Francisco, in a statement. The risk of developing cancer declined “substantially” with advancing age, the authors said.

“It is imperative, particularly given these results, that we start collecting radiation dose data at the individual patient level,” Smith-Bindman said in a statement. “Our results point toward the need to start collecting data on what actually happens in clinical practice and then to establish the appropriate standards.”

Heart Scan|Cardiac CT Scan

Some doctors call the heart scan procedure the "mammogram of the heart" because of its capability of detecting heart disease at an early stage. However, other doctors feel that more studies should be conducted before this becomes a widely used screening technique.

The Heart Scan Procedure
The heart scan is a simple non-invasive test used for early detection of heart disease. With early detection and modifying your risk factors, the potential for advanced heart disease may be significantly reduced and in some cases reversed.

The heart scan is a painless test that takes about 10 minutes. The process is similar to taking an x-ray of your body. An individual lies on the scanner table and multiple images of the heart are taken. A qualified physician then interprets these images to determine the amount of calcified plaque in the arteries.

The heart scan may be appropriate for men 35 or older and women 40 or older with any one of the following risk factors. Younger individuals with any of the following risk factors may also be considered:

* High Blood Pressure
* High Cholesterol
* Diabetes
* History of tobacco use
* Family history of heart disease
* Overweight or obese
* Significant emotional or job-related stress

How does the Heart Scan detect Heart Disease?

Heart Scan Showing No Calcification.The heart scan does not determine whether or not you are going to have a heart attack. Rather, the heart scan detects calcified plaque in the arteries of the heart. Calcified plaque is an indicator of heart disease. Soft plaque or non-calcified deposits are also predictors of heart disease however, these cannot be detected by a Heart Scan or any other non-invasive test. So even if the Heart Scan determines that you do not have any calified plaque there is still a risk that you have soft plaque or non-calcified plaque.
Background on Heart Disease

Heart Disease is the #1 cause of death and disability in the United States. Unfortunately, in many cases, the first sign of heart disease may be a heart attack and possibly death.

Body ScanHeart disease and heart attacks are caused by a process called atherosclerosis, often referred to as "hardening of the arteries". As we grow older, cholesterol particles deposit themselves in the walls of our blood vessels. This gradual buildup of cholesterol is collectively referred to as "plaque". When plaque gets big enough, it can obstruct blood flow or it can become unstable and the plaque can rupture and cause a heart attack. This process of forming plaque occurs in almost everyone, often starting as early as the teen years. However, it usually takes many years before the plaques are large enough to actually cause a problem.

For more information on heart disease contact:

The American Heart Association is a national voluntary health agency to help reduce disability and death from cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

Why Get a Heart Scan?
A heart scan is used "screening" of heart disease and cancer. In medicine, "screening" means looking for a medical condition in a person showing no symptoms in the hope of identifying problems early, when treatment can be most effective. There are many screening tests that look for different abnormalities. For example, a very popular screening test for women is the mammogram. Most mammograms are done on women who do not have a lump in the breast or other evidence of breast cancer; it is done as a preventive measure in hopes of catching breast cancer at an early stage. The heart scan is based on the same theory - eary detection.

How long does a heart scan take?
The heart scan approximately takes about 10-15 minutes.
What is the cost of a heart scan?

The average cost of a heart scan is $500.

CT Scan Vs MRI Scan

 It is a general question what is the difference between CT Scan and MRI Scan. Often people thinks these are same but there are big difference between CT Scan and MRI. Let us find the solution of the problem.
1. What part of the body does your doctor want to see? AND
2. What's the reason for the exam?

CT Scan does not show you tendons and ligaments very well at all; at least not yet. MRI is the best choice for that. Tendons and ligaments around the shoulder and knee are best seen by the physics used in MRI. This is due to the density of the tissues that compose the tendons and ligaments.
Spinal cord is best seen by MRI for the same reason. The density of the spinal cord and the composition of it is such that MRI physics can show it to us much better than CT.
There are also reasons why CT is the exam of choice over MRI. It is the preferred modality for cancer, pneumonia, and abnormal chest x-rays. Bleeding in the brain, especially from injury, is better seen on CT than MRI. But a tumor in the brain is better seen on MRI.
If you've been in an accident, organs can get torn or damaged. CT shows organ tear and organ injury quickly and efficiently. Broken bones and vertebral bodies of the spine are better seen on CT but injury to the spinal cord itself is displayed on MRI far better than CT.
CT is far superior at visualizing the lungs and organs in the chest cavity between the lungs. MRI is not a good tool for visualizing the chest or lungs at all.

MRI vs CT scan depends on what needs to be visualized and the reason you need the test. Radiologists are the doctors that specialize in reading images of the body and therefore know which test is best for showing anatomy according to the reason for the exam. Very experienced CT and MRI technologists will also know from working with Radiologists. The difference in the way the images are produced in MRI vs CT is the physics involved. CT scan uses an x-ray beam that slices through you like a knife carving a spiral ham.
MRI ( magnetic resonance imaging) uses a magnetic field with radio frequencies introduced into it. When your body is placed inside the magnetic field, the molecules of water in your body (hydrogen molecules) will start to spin like a kid's top when he spins it. The top will begin to wobble as it slows down.
Your hydrogen molecules will start to wobble just like the top does at a certain rate of speed; the stronger the magnetic field, the faster they will wobble and the weaker the magnetic field, the slower they will wobble; it depends on the strength of the magnetic field.
Then a radio frequency is introduced into the magnetic field at the same rate of speed at which the "tops wobble" causing the wobbling tops and radio frequency to sing out together sharing the same signal frequency. (Thus the term resonance) That signal is used by the MRI computer to produce the image.

MRI is the one that has the longer shape to it like this.

CT scanners have more of a donut shape like this.

64 slice CT scan

 64 slice CT scanner?

In computed tomography (CT) scanning, x-rays obtain image data from different angles around the body and then are processed by a computer. The images are 3 dimensional in nature and provide good resolution. The CT is an excellent technique to make a diagnosis of disorders in many different parts of the body, however, because the heart is constantly beating, CT scan could never be used to image it in the past.
Until the past few years, the technical gold standard was 16-slice CT scan, which required the patient to hold their breath for 25- to 40-seconds in the time it took to perform the scan. Today, the 64 slice CT scanner can perform the same task in just a few seconds and the images are much better.
The speed of the 64-slice CT scanner can gather a high-resolution image of a heart, brain or both lungs in less than five seconds. A scan of the whole body is possible in about 30 seconds. The speed of the 64 slice CT scanner has also allowed for the technology to be an alternative to conventional angiography or cardiac catheterization. The procedure is less invasive and produces excellent imaging.

What is the biggest advantage of a 64 slice CT Scanner?

Today, the only way to confirm the presence of coronary artery disease is to get what is called a cardiac catheterization. This invasive procedure requires a large amount of dye, large needle in the groin, bed rest for 6-8 hours and an overnight stay in the hospital. The 64 slice CT scanner is so fast that it can image the heart and the coronary vessels in a few seconds. This latest generation scanner is able to non-invasively capture images of any organ in one second and capture images of the heart and coronaries in fewer than five heartbeats, something no other CT system can offer.
Because the 64 slice CT scanner has only been recently available, its use in the evaluation of the heart has been limited. However, there is no doubt that it will soon replace cardiac catheterization for many elective cases.
Heart catheterization is a very commonly performed test that is safe and provides very accurate information. But, it is still an invasive test, which is one reason why this technology is being studied.

What information can be provided by a CT cardiac scan?

Because of the extremely fast speed of the scanner and the latest computer technology, one can obtain images of the heart in multiple dimensions. The coronary vessels can be visualized and the presence of any blockage easily seen.
The 64 slice CT scanner provides images of the heart in between each contraction, without causing any blurring of the images.

How is the 64 slice CT heart scan done?

The best heart views are obtained with a slow heart rate. Thus, some doctors will give a medication to slow the heart just prior to the procedure. The patient lies down flat on the table and the CT scan is done. The 64 slice CT scan is so fast that the entire heart is imaged in less than 15 seconds. The patient then goes home.

When can the results be available?

If prior arrangements have been made with a radiologist, the images can be read right after the scan and be ready in 30 minutes.

Who is a candidate for a 64 slice CT scan?

  • those individuals with the lowest risk of heart disease
  • young patients with questionable heart disease
  • young patients with congenital heart problems
  • individuals with an abnormal stress test and a low risk for heart disease
  • patients with atypical chest pain and low likelihood for heart disease
  • individuals with disease in their carotid arteries
  • individuals with a stroke
  • individuals with a blood clot in the lung (pulmonary emboli)
  • individuals with cancer

What are the benefits of a 64 slice CT SCAN?

  • The unprecedented coverage speed of this system allows physicians to capture a high-resolution image of the heart in 5 beats, or go head to toe in less than 10 seconds - faster than any other CT scanner on the market today.
  • This pain-free procedure offers exceptional image quality which can mean better physician diagnosis, faster recovery time and increased patient comfort and convenience.
  • By providing a non-invasive study that can quickly distinguish blocked from normal coronary arteries, it can determine who is and is not at high risk of having a heart attack. This can reduce the time a patient must spend in the emergency department, or eliminate the need for hospitalization, if the exam is normal.
  • Unlike conventional angiogram, the needle is placed in the hand and not in the groin.
  • Unlike cardiac catheterization, this is an outpatient procedure.
  • The complications of the procedure itself are much less than that of a cardiac catheterization.
  • For those who have back or neck pain, this technique is much easier than a cardiac catheterization as the procedure takes a few seconds.

What are limitations of a 64 slice CT SCANNER?

Although the scanner table is built to support up to 450 pounds, it can be difficult to accommodate patients who are morbidly obese.
The CT scanner is not the best at identifying calcium precipitates around the blood vessels and may fail to detect the presence of a plaque.
In addition, if an individual has a coronary stent placed, the CT scan is unable to detect the presence of any narrowing inside the stent.
The presence of mechanical heart valves, pacemaker leads and any other foreign body around the heart can interfere with the quality of the image.
Each scanner costs between $1.5 million to $2 million.
It does have radiation exposure and may not be suitable for pregnant females.

PET Scan Lung Cancer

Lung cancer accounts for the most cancer-related deaths in both men and women.

More people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined.
In 2009, there will be an estimated 219,440 new cases of lung cancer in the United States: 116,090 cases among men and 103,350 among women, according to the American Cancer Society.
**Experts predict that this year about 159,390 people will die of lung cancer.
Lung cancer may take many years to develop--it is a silent killer because it can grow for a long time before it is found. Once the lung cancer occurs, cancer cells can break away and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Lung cancer is such a deadly disease because it often spreads before it is found.
Most patients are between 55 to 65 years old when they are diagnosed. Sadly, the overall survival for 5 years in patients with the different types of lung cancer is less than 10%. However, when lung cancer is found early enough for surgery to remove it (before it has spread to other organs), patient 

There are many types of lung cancer, but most belong to one of two types:
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) - Although the cancer cells are small, they spread quickly to form large tumors that then can progress to other parts of the body, including lymph nodes, brain, liver, and bones.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - This is the most common type of lung cancer and incorporates several different sub-types: Squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, and large cell. These types may also spread quickly to other parts of the body.
Although most lung cancers do not cause symptoms until they have spread, some of the most common early symptoms may be:
  • A cough that does not go away
  • Bloody or reddish colored mucous that is coughed up
  • Shortness of breath or wheezing
  • Chest pain
  • Hoarseness
  • Rapid loss of weight; loss of appetite
If lung cancer is found, prompt treatment could save your life.
Since most people with early lung cancer do not have any symptoms, only about 15% of lung cancers are found in the early stages. When lung cancer is found early, it is often because a chest x-ray, CT scan, or other test was being done for another reason.
This is where PET Scanning can help.
If your doctor suspects that you might have or be at risk for lung cancer, he/she will most likely talk to you about your medical history and do a physical exam. To get pictures of your lungs, your doctor might want to do an imaging test, such as a PET scan.
Lung masses are usually first evaluated through a chest x-ray or a CT scan. These tests can provide information regarding the size and location of a lung mass but most often they cannot tell if the abnormality is benign or cancerous. Solitary pulmonary nodules and other lung masses can be screened with high accuracy using PET.
PET scans, now available at the PET centers nearest you are a new test that help doctors learn more about the tumor-maybe even preventing an unnecessary biopsy. Click here for information about whether you might be a candidate for PET or to schedule a PET Scan.


The doctors diagnose the cancer and determine what kind it is by looking at a sample of the tumor under a microscope. This alone does not determine what treatment you can have. Before treatment, your doctors must determine if or how much the lung cancer has spread. This is called staging the cancer.
The outlook for your recovery and your treatment options, which may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy depend upon the stage of the cancer. If lung cancer is found and treated with surgery before it has spread to lymph nodes or other organs, the five-year survival rate is about 42%. Knowing accurately whether you are a candidate for surgery is critical at this early point in time.
PET is the most useful test that you can have when doctors are staging or re-staging lung cancer because it is more accurate than CT or any other test. 

How PET works:
In cancer, cells begin to grow at a much faster rate, feeding on sugars like glucose. PET works by using a small amount of a radioactive drug called a tracer in combination with a compound such as glucose. Once you are injected with the tracer and glucose, the tracer travels through your body. It emits signals as it travels and eventually collects in the organs targeted for examination. If an area in an organ is cancerous, the signals will be stronger since more glucose will be absorbed in those areas.
In the lungs, if the cancer has affected the nearby lymph nodes, they will take up more of the radioactive glucose. Whether or not lymph nodes are involved is a critical factor in deciding whether you can have surgery to remove the lung cancer. CT scanning which looks at the size of the lymph nodes, on average is only about 68% accurate in determining if the lymph nodes have been affected. PET is more than 82% accurate in determining the same thing. In the same whole-body picture, the PET scan can look throughout your whole body to see if there are any clumps of the cancer cells that have spread. The PET scan can make the difference in your recovery.
The type of treatment that can be done is based on both type of cancer cells and the stage. If the tests show that the cancer has not spread too far when it is first found, then surgery to remove it is done. Along with the surgery, your doctor may also recommend chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy as well.
In general, however, if the cancer has spread, it is treated by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Lung cancer can spread to nearly anywhere in the body, but most commonly it spreads to the brain, bone and liver. After first showing the doctors where the cancer cells are, PET can also see if the chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy has been effective in killing them.
Call the doctors at the PET centers nearest you if you have lung cancer and would like to discuss whether PET would be useful in your care. 


After treatment, it is important to know if any active cancer cells remain in the body. In the past, the amount and type of chemotherapy that is used, as well as the area treated by the radiation beams in radiation therapy, was according to standard rules. PET allows the type and amount of therapy to be directed specifically to you, the patient, and the location, extent, and resilience of your type of cancer.
PET can be used to image lung tumor response to therapy and to detect recurrence in successfully treated lesions.
If the cancer cells have been killed by the treatment, they will not absorb any of the radioactive glucose given in the PET scan. After treatment, although the tumor masses may still be present and seen on CT scans, the cells may no longer be alive-which can be shown by PET. Conversely, if the cancer cells have come back either in lymph nodes or scar tissue from surgery or another lesion, PET can see the accumulation of the radioactive glucose much sooner than a CT scan-treatment can be re-started sooner and this can improve your chance of beating this disease.
Call the doctors at the PET centers nearest you if you have lung cancer and would like to discuss whether PET could be useful in your care.

Body Scan|Full Body CT Scan

Full body scanning gets much of the attention as it is keyed to disease screening. The medical imaging method most frequently under discussion is Electron Beam Tomography, EBT, for "full body" scans. However,  CT Scans, employing a computer helical CAT scan is also used for a wide range of body screening. It may also be referred to as "spiral scanning." Both are rapid and non-intrusive for the patient and provide almost immediate results.

In the EBT process, the patient lies on a table fully-clothed and an electron beam traverses the body area in seconds. Exposure to radiation is minimal and produces 3-dimensional images for examination by the technician or physician. The exceptionally detailed graphics may be viewed from every possible angle and images may be stored, filmed or transmitted.

In spiral CT scans, the x-ray tube rotates around the reclining patient as the examination table moves forward through the scanner. Since the tube is rotating while the patient moves through the x-ray it provides a spiral view of the body and thus derives the term for the scan. The process is rapid and efficient and may be applied from head to toe.

In EBT scanning, the term "full body scanning" has been applied to a scan of the vital organs. The body area covered in the scan extends from the neck and shoulders to the top of the hips.

EBT is now one of the major screening devices for the detection of coronary artery disease. Faster than the basic CT scan, EBT has been approved by the FDA and is considered ideal for early detection of calcification in coronary arteries. The screening allows physicians to act promptly to initiate preventive measures that might not ordinarily be revealed in early stages of a disease.

FDA has cleared full body scanning for early lung cancer detection. Many forms of tumors, intestinal irregularities, and disorders of the liver and kidney's may also be found at early stages, allowing for prompt attention.

Risks of Full Body CT Scan

People should be aware of the risks associated with full body CT scans (also known as CAT scans) and virtual colonoscopy. Full body scans, promoted in most hospitals now as a new preventative health screening service available to the public, involve doses of radiation that health experts do not consider to be justifiable in terms of a health check.
An investigation by most hospitals nowHealth and the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) found people can be exposed to dangerously high levels of radiation, sometimes up to 500 times more than a standard chest x-ray, for no gain at all.

It is important to distinguish between CT scanning as a screening tool, and CT scanning for diagnostic investigation. 

This warning applies to the use of CT scanning in people with no symptoms, or with symptoms that have not been assessed by a General Practitioner.
In other patients, CT scanning is one of many useful investigations available to explore symptoms or monitor the progress of significant diseases, with the radiation dose involved in a conventional diagnostic scan deemed to be justified by the health benefits that may arise from the diagnosis.
However full body CT scans as a health check up are unproven and no studies have been completed to support their use for this purpose.
Leading Australian and international authorities on radiation technology do not support CT body scans as a preventative screening tool.
Another recently developed application of the CT scanner is virtual colonoscopy. While this test has some use in the investigation of people with a risk of bowel cancer, it should only be undertaken after consulting with a general practitioner or gastroenterologist to consider the most appropriate method of investigation for an individual.
According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection, a full CT body scan examination with an effective dose of 10 millisieverts may be associated with an increase in the possibility of developing a fatal cancer of approximately 1 in 2,000.
This small increase in radiation-associated cancer risk for an individual can become a public health concern if large numbers of the population undergo increased numbers of CT scans of uncertain benefit.
The independent Radiation Advisory Council that advises the EPA and most hospitals now Health on radiation matters, raised the following issues in relation to full body CT scans:
  • The procedure has no proven benefit and has not been shown to identify small cancers.
  • A medical practitioner should refer people for such a procedure if there is a real need.
  • The results may be unreliable, especially if there has been no medical management prior to the scan.
  • The potential radiation dose could be significant and pose long-term health risks.
CT scan operators who rely on advertising for business are subject to the following license conditions:
  • Consumers will need an independent doctor's referral before undergoing a full body scan.
  • Body scan operators must fully inform consumers about the risks of procedures, including the scale of the radiation dose, the inconclusive nature of the results and the risk for people under the age of 50 of developing cancer as a result of the procedure.
  • Consumers are obliged to sign a declaration stating they have received such advice.
CT scans have an important role to play in the medical setting and should be used in accordance with professional medical advice. Consumers have a right to know that to use full body scans or virtual colonoscopy as a screening tool may increase their risk of cancer.


CT Scan Brain

Cranial CT Scan Brain

A CT or CAT scan (computed tomography) is a much more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray, allowing high definition not only of the bony structures, but of the soft tissues.
A CT Scan is short for computerized axial tomography of the brain. It utilizes x-rays which are combined by a computer into a single picture. This process enables the physician to obtain a series of pictures of the brain without invading the brain itself. It is used primarily to rule out organic disease such as a tumor or bleeding in the brain as a cause of the headache problem. A CT Scan can be performed with or without dye. The dye may enhance the detection of a brain tumor or a blood clot. The dye is iodine based so it must be used with caution in those with allergy to these agents. It is more sensitive than MRI scans for detecting acute bleeding on the brain. However, the MRI scan is useful for looking at other brain conditions and takes pictures at different angles than the CT. The MRI does not use x-ray or iodine dye.Clear images of organs such as the brain, muscles, joint structures, veins and arteries, as well as anomalies like tumors and hemorrhages may be obtained with or without the injection of contrasting dye.

Special CT scans are done to study the paranasal sinuses. This is useful if sinusitis is suspected. A typical series of CT scans for the sinuses use less x-ray radiation than a standard complete set of x-rays. However, a CT scan of the sinuses does not show any brain tissue. Most CT scans of the head do not .include all of the sinuses.

Alternative Names computed tomography, brain, computed tomography, head, CAT scan, brain, CAT scan, head, CT scan, brain, CT scan, head, Computerised Axial Transverse Tomography (CATT)
Definition Computed tomography of the brain is a non-invasive imaging method that combines x-rays with computer technology. X-ray beams from a variety of angles are used to create a series of detailed cross-sectional images of the brain.
Who is a candidate for the test? Computed tomography is an excellent method for viewing the structures of the brain. It can provide detailed images of several types of tissue including bone, soft-tissue and blood vessels. For this reason, it can be used to:
  • provide information on brain and central nervous system diseases such as encephalitis and general paresis from syphilis
  • diagnose brain tumours
  • gather information on head injuries
  • guide radiation therapy treatments
Some of the conditions commonly investigated with a cranial CT scan include:
  • brain tumours and other abnormal brain growths
  • skull fractures
  • brain damage after head injury
  • bleeding in the brain after a stroke
  • diseases of the inner ear such as Meniere's disease
  • ruptured or leaking brain cerebral aneurysms
How is the test performed? Before the test the doctor will ask the person if he or she:
  • has any drug allergies, or history of allergic reaction to medications
  • is allergic to shellfish, or foods with added iodine such as table salt
  • has experienced claustrophobia, or anxiety in enclosed spaces. If this is a problem, mild sedating medication may be given.
A woman will be asked if there is a possibility she might be pregnant. Frequently, a urine pregnancy test will be performed on females of child-bearing age before the CT scan.
The person having the test will first need to remove items that can interfere with the images, such as wigs, hairpins, clips and removable dental hardware. The person lies on a flat platform.
The individual's head is placed in a special pillow to allow for comfort and to limit movement during the scan. The table slowly moves into the donut-shaped machine. When the table is in the appropriate position, the device delivers x-ray beams through the person's brain and skull from a variety of angles.
Frequently a special substance called a contrast agent is used to enhance internal brain structures and improve image quality on the final images. Typically, the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the arm.A conventional CT test takes between 10 and 45 minutes. The scanning process is painless. To prevent distortion of the final images, the person must lie still for the duration of the examination.
The contrast agent may cause mild nausea in some people. Flushing, itching and a metallic taste in the mouth are frequently described in patients who receive an injected contrast agent. Most of these sensations disappear within a few minutes.
After the test, the person will be asked to wait until the pictures are examined to see if any more images are needed. The person will be observed for any delayed reactions to the contrast agent. Also, the individual will be encouraged to drink extra fluids to help rid the contrast from the body.
What is involved in preparation for the test? The person having a CT will need to refrain from eating or drinking for at least 4 hours prior to the test. The CT technologist will explain the procedure to the individual. People who are prone to claustrophobia will be given a calming medication before the examination.
What do the test results mean? A doctor specially trained in analysing CT images, called a radiologist, will examine the results of the test. The radiologist will forward a report of the findings to the individual's personal doctor.
Some of the conditions a head CT can reveal include:

    * brain tumours
    * cerebral aneurysm
    * abnormalities in the structures of the brain
    * stroke from cardiogenic embolism, or a blood clot that has traveled to the brain
    * abscess
    * intracerebral haemorrhage, or bleeding in the brain
    * multiple sclerosis


CT Scan Machine

CT scan machine (Computed Tomography) is a medical imaging method employing tomography by using a digital geometry process to generated a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. Computed Tomography (CT), actually known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) and body section roentgenography.

CT scan machine is useful equipment (an important tool in medical imaging to supplement X-rays and medical ultrasonography) for the hospital to bring accurate diagnosis of the disease on the patient where by others examination still did not clear. Although most common in healthcare, CT scan machine is also used in other fields, for example nondestructive materials testing (for preventive medicine or screening for disease, for example CT colonography for patients with a high risk of colon cancer).

1. CT Scan Machine SOMATOM Emotion

The SOMATOM Emotion is one of CT scan machine that designed to make your workday easier and clinically more successful, a compact and powerful CT scanner that provides a full range of capabilities and excellent image quality at a minimal life cycle cost.

By using CT Scan Machine SOMATOM Emotion, you can get consistently high image quality even for long scans at any pitch because Siemens company created SureView™ to this machine. It's mean a dedicated and fast spiral image reconstruction technique (an Ultra Fast Ceramic (UFC™) detector), providing first class image quality.

2. CT Scan Machine Philips Brilliance

This is CT scan machine that released by Royal Philips Electronics, Designed for leading edge and research-oriented institutions that want to conduct the most advanced multislice CT studies. There are some models of Philips Brilliance CT, 64-channel and 40-channel with 6, 10 ad 16 slice configuration.

Philips Brilliance CT also expands clinical boundaries through applications, such as extended coverage brain perfusion, that will position CT as a modality of choice in stroke evaluations. The CT Scan Machine Philips Brilliance provided unprecedented performance in cardiac and coronary artery imaging, pulmonary studies, CTA and critical care exemplifying a new realm of possibilities.

Pet Scan and Cancer

What Is PET?
Most common medical imaging tests, like CT and MRI scans, show details about the structure of your body. PET scans are different. They also provide information about function. PET scans may be able to show these changes before structural changes become obvious. With a single PET scan, doctors can collect images of function throughout the body, uncovering abnormalities that might otherwise go undetected.

Cancer Can't Hide From PET
Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion, replacing worn-out or dying cells and repairing injuries. Sometimes normal cells begin to grow uncontrollably. These abnormal cells continue to grow and divide, forming new abnormal cells. The mass of extra cells forms a growth or tumor. The tumor can be noncancerous, called benign. Or the tumor can be cancerous, called malignant. Benign tumors can be removed with little chance that they will come back. Benign tumors are usually not life-threatening.

If the tumor is cancer, cells can break off from it and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they grow and replace normal tissue. This process of the cancer spreading is called metastasis. Cells from a malignant breast tumor can spread to other tissues, such as the bones. Although these cells are in the bone, the cancer is still called breast cancer.

    *  A number of studies (see the list at the end of this article) have shown that PET scans are very accurate in diagnosing both benign and cancerous tumors. This may be helpful in telling which people need surgery and which people can avoid it. For example, traditionally, a person who has an abnormal mass in his or her lung would have a biopsy to find out if it was cancer or benign. A PET scan may show that it is unlikely to be cancer, and therefore it may be possible to avoid the biopsy.

*PET scans can also show the extent of disease--called the stage--of lung cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and many other cancers. For people whose cancer has been just recently diagnosed, it is important to know the cancer’s stage, which is based on how large the cancer is and if and where it has spread in the body. Staging the cancer helps doctors find the most appropriate treatment. PET scans can search the body for cancer in a single examination, called a "whole body scan," which may show if the cancer has spread and, if so, where.

* PET scans can monitor how well treatments are working or see if the cancer has come back. For example, one woman with a history of ovarian cancer had an annual blood test that showed a rise in her tumor marker levels. This could have meant that the cancer had come back. Her CT and MRI scans were normal. She then had a PET scan, which showed that her cancer had come back in her liver. After treatment, another PET scan showed that the cancer was gone.

What Happens During a PET Scan?

PET images are different from more conventional imaging tests, such as X-ray, CT, ultrasound, and MRI. These images show what the tissues look like. PET images contain information about how tissues are functioning.

In cancer, cells begin to grow at a much faster rate, using more sugars like glucose than normal tissues. PET works by using a small amount of a radioactive tracer attached to glucose or other compounds.  The scanner looks to see which areas are using more glucose—a sign of possible cancer.

If you’re getting a PET scan, typically, you’ll be told not to eat or drink anything after midnight the night before your scan. You can have a PET scan as an outpatient.

The day of your scan, you are injected with a small amount of radioactive glucose (or similar tracer). It travels through your body and eventually collects in the organs or tissues that are using the glucose. There is no danger to you from this injection.

After the injection, you will wait approximately an hour while the tracer flows throughout your body. Then, you’ll lie on a table that passes slowly through the scanner. The scanner resembles a CT scanner, but has a much larger opening.

If the tissue or an area in an organ is cancerous, the signals will be stronger than in the surrounding tissue. Stronger signals show that more glucose was used. A scanner records these signals and transforms them into color pictures of chemistry and function.

You can expect to be in the PET center for 1 1/2 to 3 hours, but the actual scan does not take this long. The radiation exposure associated with PET is similar to a conventional CT scan, and is harmless. You should feel fine after the scan. There are no side effects from the injected tracer.

The results are read shortly after the PET scan is completed, and you can expect your doctor to be told what was seen during the scan the same day.

Will My Insurance Cover a PET Scan?

Most insurance companies pay for clinically indicated PET procedures. Your insurance company may require that you call before having the scan to get pre-authorization. Doctors routinely provide clinical information to the insurance company to get their approval. It is important to contact your insurance company to see if the PET scan is covered.

CT Scan Abdomen|Abdominal CT Scan

CT Scan Abdomen|Abdominal CT Scan

Alternative Names

CT of the abdomen

Definition of Abdominal CT scan:

An abdominal CT scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the belly area. CT stands for computed tomography.
See also: CT scan

How the test is performed:

You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Usually, you will lie on your back with your arms raised above the head.
The health care provider may inject a dye into one of your veins. This helps certain diseases and organs show up better on the images.
Once inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. Small detectors inside the scanner measure the amount of x-rays that make it through the abdomen. A computer takes this information and creates several individual images, called slices.
You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.
The actual scan time only takes a few minutes, although the entire procedure usually takes much longer.

How to prepare for the test:

Certain exams require a special dye, called contrast, to be delivered into the body before the test starts. Contrast can highlight specific areas inside the body, which creates a clearer image.
Contrast can be given through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. If contrast is used, you may also be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4-6 hours before the test.
Before receiving the contrast, tell your health care provider if you take the diabetes medication metformin (Glucophage) because you may need to take extra precautions.
Some people have allergies to IV contrast and may need to take medications before their test in order to safely receive this substance.
If you weigh more than 300 pounds, have your doctor contact the scanner operator before the exam. CT scanners have a weight limit. Too much weight can cause damage to the scanner's working parts.
Since x-rays have difficulty passing through metal, you will be asked to remove jewelry and wear a hospital gown during the study.

How the test will feel:

Some people may have discomfort from lying on the hard table.
Contrast given through a vein (IV) may cause a slight burning sensation, a metallic taste in the mouth, and a warm flushing of the body. These sensations are normal and usually go away within a few seconds.

Why the test is performed:

An abdominal CT rapidly creates detailed pictures of the structures inside the belly area (abdomen). The test may be used to:
  • Study blood vessels
  • Identify masses and tumors, including cancer
  • Look for infections, kidney stones, or appendicitis

CT Scan Head

What is CT Scanning of the Head?

CT scanning also known as CT scan is a noninvasive, painless radiological test to evaluate many disorders of the brain. CT scan uses special x-ray equipment to produce multiple cross sectional images of the head- which are then analyzed by a computer and converted into a 3 dimensional picture. The CT scan is many times more sensitive then the plain x ray in imaging the brain.

What conditions of the head can CT scan be used for?

A head CT may be recommended if one has:
  • Headache
  • Seizures
  • Head injury or injury to the face or eyes
  • Dizziness or problems with balance
  • Skull fracture
  • Confusion
  • Sudden behaviors change
  • Trauma to the e facial
  • Repeat falls
  • repeat sinus infections
  • swelling in the head and face area
  • suspected brain cancer
  • spread of cancer to the brain
  • Cysts in brain
  • Congenital deformities
  • suspected bleeding in the brain
  • suspected aneurysm or AV malformations
  • Infection of brain
  • Hydrocephalus (brain swelling from excessive fluid)
  • When performing biopsy of a brain lesion
  • CT can be used to follow results of radiation therapy for cancer

What preparations are required for a CT Head scan?

One should not eat 2-3 hrs prior to the procedure. When arriving to the radiology suite, one should wear loose-fitting clothing to your exam or a gown can be provided.
All metal objects including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins can interfere with CT imaging an should be removed or left home prior to the CT scan.
Anyone with allergies/asthma should inform the technologist of this. Individuals with allergies/asthma are required to take some medications at least 24 hrs prior to the procedure.
Individuals with kidney/diabetes problems may be admitted the night before and hydrated with fluids.
Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Pregnancy is usually a contraindication to a CT scan, unless the benefits of the test override the risks.

What does the CT scan equipment look like?

The CT scanner is a large machine with tunnel housing in the center. A moveable examination table slides into and out of this tunnel. In the center of the machine, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other- and rotate around the patient. The images generated are processed by a computer.
Recent advances in scanning technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple images in a single rotation. These scanners, called "multi slice CT" or "multidetector CT," allow thinner slices to be obtained in a shorter period of time, resulting in more detail and better resolution. These fast scanners are beneficial for critically ill patients and the elderly.

How is the CT scan performed?

You will be asked to lie down on a flat table which is mobile. An IV is usually started when contrast material is used in the study. After this, the table moves into the tunnel where the actual imaging is done. During the procedure, you may be asked to hold your breath for a few seconds to prevent any motion artifacts. Unfortunately, no one else is allowed in the CT scan room because of radiation exposure but you will be watched through a window by the technologist. The technologist will also speak to you via a microphone. Once the imaging has been completed, you can go home. The imaging takes about 15-20 minutes.

How does one feel during the procedure?

CT scan is a painless procedure. Today's fast speed scanners can complete the imaging in less than 5-10 minutes, thus reducing the time needed to lay flat and still.
The only discomfort of CT scanning is the lying down flat for a few minutes. This may be of no consequence to most individuals but can be discomforting to those with neck and back problems. In addition, the CT scan does tend to cause a claustrophobic feeling because of the closed space enclosure.
When contrast is used, the individual may feel warm all over the body during the injection. This is a transient painless feeling. Others may complain of a metallic taste in the mouth. The rare individual may develop an allergy which may be associated with hives and pruritis (itching).
When the contrast material is swallowed, it does have an unpleasant taste but tolerable. Most individuals complain of bloating after swallowing the dye- symptoms which rapidly subside.
When a child is having a CT scan, one of the parents or a nurse may be allowed into the room but is required to wear a lead apron to prevent radiation exposure.
After the CT scan, one can resume all normal activities. If contrast was administered, one is encouraged to drink lots of fluids.

Who interprets the results and how do I get them?

The Scans are always read by a radiologist. If prior arrangements have been made with the radiologist, then the results can be available 30 mins after the CT is done.

What are the advantages vs disadvantages of a CT scan of the head?

  • CT scan is a painless non invasive procedure with good sensitivity to detect pathology of the head
  • CT scan is far superior to an MRI when evaluating skull fractures
  • Ct scan can provide detailed images of the brain nervous tissue
  • CT is excellent for individuals involved in head trauma
  • CT can rapidly identify the presence of a stroke early in evolution
  • CT is excellent in making a diagnosis of bleeding in the brain (Subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  • CT scan is much cheaper than an MRI an equally as fast
  • The newer generation of CT scans can combine angiography and assess the blood supply to the brain
  • The motion artifacts are less of a problem with a CT scan compared to an MRI.
  • CT scan can be performed in patients with implanted medical devices.
  • CT scan provides dynamic imaging and thus allows for needle biopsies to be performed simultaneously.

  • unlike MRI, CT scan is associated with a radiation (this is about the same radiation exposure that a normal individual would get in about 12 months)
  • CT scan should never be done in a pregnant female because of the exposure of radiation risk to the fetus
  • The dye used in a CT is iodine based and is often a cause of allergy. The dye can also lead to kidney failure in individuals with diabetes
  • Unlike adults, CT scan should not be repeated in children because of the repeat radiation exposure
  • CT is not very good at identifying pathology of the soft tissues
  • CT is not good at identifying areas of inflammation or infection of the brain compared to MRI

What are the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head?

An obese patient may not be able to fit in the machine.
For those who have partial renal failure, injection of contrast may not be possible because of the risk of inducing complete renal failure.

What is the cost of a CT scan?

The average cost of a CT scan of the head is about $200-$400.

Private MRI Scan and its Cost

Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed internal pictures of your body. No X-Rays are involved. In basic terms, the magnet makes the hydrogen protons in your body all behave in the same way. The protons are excited by a radio frequency pulse, this pulse is then switched off and the protons emit extra energy. An antenna receives these signals and a computer produces an image.
Any part of your body can be imaged to assist in the diagnosis of your medical condition.


a mri of the head For the majority of examinations no preparation is required. You may continue to eat and drink and take your medication as usual. If any preparation is required a member of staff will contact you with instructions.
In many cases, you can have your MRI scan performed while wearing your own clothes. However, we must ensure that none of your clothing or accessories contains any metal that could be attracted to the magnet and interfere with your scan.
For your own safety and convenience, we ask that you observe the following rules:
  • Wear comfortable clothes without metal zippers, safety pins, studs or buckles.
  • Remove any metal containing objects such as, jewellery, hairpins, hearing aids, glasses, wigs, watches etc.
  • Empty your pockets of all loose items such as money, coins, credit cards, mobile phones, keys, pens etc.
If your clothes are unsuitable a hospital gown will be provided.
Dressing rooms and lockers for valuables are available in the MRI Department.

The Procedure:

mriOn arrival at the Wellington Hospital please report to the X-Ray reception on the ground floor of the South Building. The booking clerk will obtain all relevant information from you including billing matters - should you have any queries you may discuss them here.
Check in:
You will be seated in the MRI waiting room where you will be given a MRI Safety Questionnaire to complete. This is to ensure that you are safe to go into the scanning room. A Radiographer will go through this with you before you are taken into the scanning room.
If necessary you will be asked to change into a gown and to remove all loose items.
The Scan Itself:
For the majority of scans you will be required to lie on your back on a padded table, which moves into the magnet opening. An explanation will be given to you with an approximate time for the length of the scan. You will be given an alarm button to hold. In an emergency you may press this button to alert the Radiographer. The scan will be stopped and you will be removed from the scanner immediately.
In most cases you will be given headphones through which you can listen to a choice of music from our selection. This is to eliminate some of the noise the scanner makes while it is taking images.
Feel free to bring along any CD's you wish to listen to. Earplugs will be provided for those examinations where wearing headphones is not appropriate.
You will be able to talk to the Radiographer when you are in the scanner via an intercom system. The Radiographer will talk to you via this intercom.
It is extremely important that you keep still while you are being scanned. Any movement will blur the images and the scans may need to be repeated.
Once the scans are complete you will be moved away from the machine and you will be free to collect your belongings and leave the department.

Obtaining the Results:

Your MRI Scan will be interpreted by a Consultant Radiologist who specialises in MR Imaging. This is usually done on the day of your scan. The report and the images are sent to your referring clinician the following day. You will be contacted by your referring clinician in due course to discuss the findings of this procedure.


Contraindications are reasons why an MRI Scan may not be undertaken. There are several medical conditions or metallic devices that may be in the body that make MRI scanning unsuitable, for example:
  • A Cardiac Pacemaker
  • Aneurysm Clips
  • Metallic foreign bodies (particularly in the eyes)
  • Cochlear Implants
  • Neurostimulators
  • Pregnancy

Cost of Private MRI Scan
All of the above make the use of powerful magnetism impractical and unwise. However, stainless steel prostheses such as hip or knee joint replacements, spinal and intramedullary nails and some heart valves can be imaged safely. If you have any of these devices or conditions please contact a member of staff at the MRI Unit to discuss whether it is possible for you to undergo the examination.
From £200 per single region, fully reported MRI scan, depending upon availability of appointments on any given day.  Prices vary based on daily demand, so the most affordable prices are available during less busy periods.

PET/CT Scan/| PET Scan Procedure

PET is a nuclear medicine technique using a camera, which captures powerful images of the human body's function and reveals information of health and disease. Compounds normally existing in the body, like simple sugars, are labeled with radioactive tracers, which emit signals and are injected into the body intravenously. The scanner records the signals that the tracer emits as it journeys through the body and as it collects in targeted organs. A powerful computer reassembles the signals into actual images, which then show biological maps of normal organ function and failure of organ systems in disease.

A PET scan uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3-dimensional, color images of the functional processes within the human body. PET stands for positron emission tomography. The machine detects pairs of gamma rays which are emitted indirectly by a tracer (positron-emitting radionuclide) which is placed in the body on a biologically active molecule. The images are reconstructed by computer analysis. Modern machines often use a CT X-ray scan which is performed on the patient at the same time in the same machine.

PET scans can be used to diagnose a health condition, as well as for finding out how an existing condition is developing. PET scans are often used to see how effective an ongoing treatment is.

How does a PET scan work?

Radiotracer - Before carrying out a PET scan, a radioactive medicine is produced in a cyclotron (a type of machine). The radioactive medicine is then tagged to a natural chemical. This natural chemical could be glucose, water, or ammonia. The tagged natural chemical is known as a radiotracer. The radiotracer is then inserted into the human body.

When it is inside the radiotracer will go to areas inside the body that use the natural chemical. For example, FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose - a radioactive drug) is tagged to glucose to make a radiotracer. The glucose goes into those parts of the body that use glucose for energy. Cancers, for example, use glucose differently from normal tissue - so, FDG can show up cancers.

Detecting positrons - A PET scan detects the energy emitted by positively-charge particles (positrons). As the radiotracer is broken down inside the patient's body positrons are made. This energy appears as a 3-dimensional image on a computer monitor.

The reason why PET is so successful is that no other imaging technique shows the internal chemistry of the body so well. Conventional imaging techniques such as X-ray, CAT scans, and Magnetic Imaging Resonance shows anatomy. PET detects chemical and metabolic changes in disease states, such as cancer, before anatomic and structural changes (detected by conventional imaging) have time to develop. Therefore PET can detect diseases when anatomic imaging studies are still normal, and may be informative in differentiating benign from malignant process. PET evaluation of tissue metabolism can indicate the probable presence or absence of malignancy based on differences of biological activity, where as anatomic imaging depends on size and radiographic characteristics of lesions to determine the likelihood of malignancy. In addition, whole body imaging with PET provides a means to examine all the organ systems in the entire body for both primary and metastatic disease in one procedure.

The image - The image reveals how parts of the patients body function by the way they break down the radiotracer. A PET image will display different levels of positrons according to brightness and color.

When the image is complete it will be examined by a radiologist who reports his/her findings to a doctor. A radiologist is a doctor who specializes in interpreting these types of images, as well as MRI scan, CT scan, Ultrasound and X-ray images.

Why are PET scans required?

PET scans are generally used alongside X-rays or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans. Doctors use PET scans as a complementary test to these main ones. They are used to make a diagnosis or to get more data about a health condition. As mentioned above, they are also useful in finding out how effective current treatment is. The use of combined imaging technologies may hold the key to stopping - and even preventing - heart attacks, a study revealed.


The preparation for a PET/CT is very specific in what you can andcannot do prior to your appointment. The preparation requirements are dependant on the reason for your scan. A detailed preparation sheet will be given to you when you make your appointment.


On arriving at the PET/CT Centre, present any previous imagingyou have had to clerical staff. A technologist will confirm that you have undertaken the correct preparation for your scan and make sure you understand the procedure fully. A Nurse will go through a questionnaire with you and a glucose check will be performed via a finger pin prick. A needle will be placed in your arm and the tracer is injected through the needle. After the injection you must wait a minimum of 1 hour prior to your scan. During this 1 hour period you will be resting quietly in a dimly lit room. It is very important during this time to relax, avoid talking, and avoid any significant movement.

Examination and Reporting Time

The PET scanner detects the radiation released from the radioactive sugar injection and uses this to create pictures of your body. The CT scan will image the anatomy and alterations in structure related to disease. The scan process will involve you lying on your back with your arms raised above the head. The scan will take approximately 20 minutes. The PET and CT images are combined and displayed on a computer screen or photographic fi lm.
We recommend that you resume your normal diet after the examination. You should drink plenty of fl uids for the next few days. This will help clear any remaining tracer from your body.
When the scan is complete, the images will be reviewed by a Radiologist and specialist in Nuclear Medicine, specially trained in reporting these scans. All your images will be correlated with any previous studies that you may have had. The results of your PET/CT scan will usually be available the next business day.